Bender B.R.

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118 сообщений в этой теме

18 of august

* 1826 - The Armenian cathedral of Constantinople, including many valuble manuscripts and documents, catches fire. The church was in Gum-Gapu (Constantinople.)

* 1876 - Birth of Shooshanik Kiurghinyan (poet) in Alexandropol. She died in 1927.

* 1910 - Birth of Harootyoon Kalents (artist). He died in 1967.

* 1917 - Hovhannissyan publishes the "Support" newspaper in Shooshee (Artsakh).

* 1993 - Ghapan (Armenia) suffers heavy bombardment by Azeri Turkish forces.

* 1994 - Catholicos Vazgen the First passes away in Yerevan. He was born in 1908.

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19 august

* 1856 - Birth of Nikoghayos Tigranyan (composer, pianist). He died in 1951.

* 1944 - Sergey Khudiakov (Armenak Khanferdyants) is made Air Marshal of the USSR.

* 1991 - Attempted coup against Gorbatshev.

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20 of august

  • 1882 - The Armenian Teachers of the Caucasus First General Meeting opens in Tbilissi (Georgia).
  • 1899 - Stepan Shahumian presides over Armenia's first Marxist group in Stepanavan.
  • 1916 - Birth of Tatevik Sazandaryan (singer).
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21 of august

* 1421 - Battle of Bagrevand during which the Karakooyoonloos are defeated.

* 1903 - Catholicos Khrimian Hairik orders not to hand over church properties to the civil authorities.

* 1921 - The first Assembly of Armenia's Komsomol (the Young Communist League) in Yerevan.

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22 of august

  • 1892 - Death of Rafael Patkanyan (poet) in New Nakhichevan (Russia). He was born in 1830.
  • 1894 - Birth of Admiral Ivan Isaakov in Hajikend near Ghars (Western Armenia). He died in 1967.
  • 1921 - Opening of the First Assembly of Armenia's Trade Unions in Yerevan.
  • 1993 - The Artsakh Army captures Fizuli from the retreating Azeri Turkish army.
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23 of august

  • 1903 - The Law of 1903 06 12 provokes riots in Tbilissi (Georgia).
  • 1947 - Creation of the Historical Institute of Armenia's Communist Party.
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25 of august

1890 - Creation of the "Armenian Revolutionary Federation" party in Tbilissi (Georgia).

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26 of august

* 1854 - The first version of a constitution for the internal organization of western Armenians is presented to the Armenian Patriarch. He eventually rejects it.

* 1915 - Daniel Varujan (poet) was killed during the Armenian Genocide implemented by the Turks. He was born in 1884.

* 1926 - Opening of the "Arzni" Sanatorium and Spa.

* 1945 - Death of Franz Werfel (Austrian novelist). He wrote "The Forty Days of Musa Dagh" (1933), a best-selling epic tale of Armenian resistance to the Turkish Genocide of 1915. He was born in 1890.

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27 of august

  • 1870 - Death of Hakob Manvelyan (educator). He was born in 1802.
  • 1896 - Over a two-month period, the Turkish government massacres Armenians in Constantinople.
  • 1932 - Birth of Garegin I (Nshan Sargissyan) in Kesap (Syria), who later became Catholicos of the Armenian Church, the 131st Spiritual Leader of Armenian Holy Apostolic Church. He died in 1999.
  • 1945 - The First Congress of the Armenian Union of Soviet Artists opens in Yerevan.
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28 августа

  • 1795 - Yerevan's Khan surrenders his fort to Shah Agha-Muhammad.
  • 1828 - Russian forces occupy Bayazet (Western Armenia).
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29 of august

  • 1865 - Death of Karapet Shahnazaryan in Constantinople. He was born in 1814.
  • 1997 - President Ter-Petrossyan of Armenia and President Yeltsin of Russia sign a Friendship and Mutual Assistance Treaty in Moscow.
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30 of august

  • 1880 - The Turkish Government forbids the word &quote;Armenia&quote; on official documents and maps.
  • 1906 - The "Armenian Central National Assembly" (in Echmiadsin) is ordered closed by the Tsar. It had opened 13 days earlier.
  • 1908 - Death of Mooratsan - Grigor Ter-Hovhannisyan -(writer) in Tbilissi (Georgia). He was born in 1854.
  • 1924 - Organization of Armenia's Agricultural Co-operative.
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31 of august

  • 1908 - Birth of William Saroyan (writer) in Fresno (USA). He was awarded a Pulitzer Prize-winner in 1940. And died in 1981.

American author whose stories celebrated optimism in the middle of trials and difficulties of the Depression-era. Several of Saroyan's works were drawn from his own experiences, although his approach to autobiographical facts can be called poetic. His advice to a young writer was: "Try to learn to breathe deeply; really to taste food when you eat, and when you sleep really to sleep. Try as much as possible to be wholly alive with all your might, and when you laugh, laugh like hell." Saroyan worked tirelessly to perfect a prose style, that was full of zest of for life and was seemingly impressionistic. The style became known as 'Saroyanesque.'

William Saroyan was born in Fresno, California, as the son of an Armenian immigrant. His father moved to New Jersey in 1905 - he was a small vineyard owner, who had been educated as a Presbyterian minister. In the new country he was forced to take farm-labouring work. He died in 1911 from peritonitis, after drinking a forbidden glass of water given by his wife, Takoohi. Saroyan was put in an orphanage in Alameda with his brothers. Six years later the family reunited in Fresno, where Takoohi had obtained work in a cannery.

In 1921 Saroyan attended the Technical School in order to learn to type. At the age of fifteen, Saroyan left the school. His mother had showed him some of his fathers writings, and he decided to become a writer. Saroyan continued his education by reading and writing on his own, and supporting himself by odd jobs. At the San Francisco Telegraph Company he worked as an office manager. A few of his early short articles were published in The Overland Monthly. His first collected stories started to appear in the 1930s. Among these was 'The Broken Wheel', which was written under the name Sirak Goryan. It was published in the Armenian journal Hairenik in 1933.

"The writer is a spiritual anarchist, as in the depth of his soul every man is. He is discontented with everything and everybody. The writer is everybody's best friend and only true enemy - the good and great enemy. He neither walks with the multitude nor cheers with them. The writer who is a writer is a rebel who never stops." (from The William Saroyan Reader, 1958)

As a writer Saroyan made his breakthrough in the Story magazine with 'The Daring Young Man on the Flying Trapeze' (1934), after the popular song. The protagonist is a young, starving writer who tries to survive in a Depression-ridden society. "Through the air on the flying trapeze, his mind hummed. Amusing it was, astoundingly funny. A trapeze to God, or to nothing, a flying trapeze to some sort of eternity; he prayed objectively for strength to make the flight with grace." Saroyan's character has some connections to Knut Hamsun's penniless writer in his famous novel Hunger (1890), but without the anger and nihilism of Hamsun's narrator. The story was republished in Saroyan's bestselling collection, and with its royalties Saroyan financed his trip to Europe and Armenia, where he learned to love the taste of Russian cigarettes. He also developed a theory that "you may tend to get cancer from the thing that makes you want to smoke so much, not from the smoking itself." (from Not Dying, 1963)

Many of Saroyan's stories were based on his childhood, experiences among the Armenian-American fruit growers of the San Joaquin Valley, or dealt with the rootlessness of the immigrant. The short story collection MY NAME IS ARAM (1940), an international bestseller, was about a young boy, Aram Garoghlanian, and the colorful characters of his immigrant family. It has been translated among others into Finnish.

As a playwright Saroyan's work was drawn from deeply personal sources. He disregarded the conventional idea of conflict as essential to drama. MY HEART' IN THE HIGHLANDS (1939), his first play, was a comedy about a young boy and his Armenian family. It was produced at the Guild Theatre in New York. Among Saroyan's best known plays is THE TIME OF YOUR LIFE (1939), set in a waterfront saloon in San Francisco. It won a Pulitzer Prize. Saroyan refused the honor, on the grounds that commerce should not judge the arts, but accepted the New York Drama Critics Circle award. In 1948 the play was adapted into screen, starring James Gagney.

THE HUMAN COMEDY (1943) was set in Ithaca, in California's San Joaquin Valley, where the young Homer, a telegraph messenger, becomes a witness of sorrows and joys of small town people during World War II. "Mrs. Sandoval," Homer said swiftly, "your son is dead. Maybe it's a mistake. Maybe it wasn't your son. Maybe it was somebody else. The telegram says it was Juan Domingo. But maybe the telegram is wrong." (from The Human Comedy) The story was bought by MGM and made Saroyan's shaky financial situation more secure. Louis B. Mayer had purchased the story for $60,000 and gave Saroyan $1,500 a week for his work as producer-director. After seeing Saroyan's short film, Mayer gave the direction to Clarence Brown. The sentimental final sequence of the Oscar-winning film, starring Mickey Rooney and Frank Morgan, has been called "the most embarrassing moment in the whole history of movies." ( David Shipman in The Story of Cinema, vol. 2, 1984) Before the war Saroyan had worked at one point on the screenplay of Golden Boy (1939), based on Clifford Odet's play, but he never gained much success in Hollywood.

Saroyan also published essays and memoirs, in which he depicted the people he had met on travels in the Soviet Union and Europe, such as the playwright George Bernard Shaw, the Finnish composer Jean Sibelius, and Charlie Chaplin. During World War II Saroyan joined the US army. He was stationed in Astoria, Queens, but he spent much of his time at the Lombardy Hotel in Manhattan, far from the Army personnel. In 1942 he was posted to London in as a part of a film unit and narrowly avoided a court martial, when his novel THE ADVENTURES OF WESLEY JACKSON (1946) turned out to be pacifist.

In 1943 Saroyan married the seventeen-years-old Carol Marcus; they had two children, Aram and Lucy. When Carol revealed that she was Jewish and illegitimate, Saroyan divorced. They remarried again and divorced. Lucy became an actress. Aram became a poet, who published a book about his father. Carol Marcus married later the actor Walter Matthau.

Saroyan's financial situation did not improve after WW II, when interest in his novels declined and he was criticized for sentimentalism. Saroyan praised freedom; brotherly love and universal benevolence were for him basic values, but with his idealism Saroyan was considered more or less out of date. However, he wrote prolifically. "How could you you write so much good stuff and still write such bad stuff?" asked one of his readers. In 1952 Saroyan published the first of several book-length memoirs, THE BICYCLE RIDER IN BEVERLY HILLS. In the title novella of THE ASSYRIAN, AND OTHER STORIES (1950) and in THE LAUGHING MATTER (1953) Saroyan mixed allegorical elements within a realistic novel. The plays SAM EGO'S HOUSE (1949) and THE SLAUGHTER OF THE INNOCENTS (1958) examined moral questions, but they did not gain the success of his prewar works. When Saroyan joked on Ernest Hemingway's Death in the Afternoon, Heminway responded: "We've seen them come and go. Good ones too. Better ones than you, Mr. Saroyan."

Many of Saroyan's later plays, such as THE PARIS COMEDY (1960), THE LONDON COMEDY (1960), and SETTLED OUT COURT (1969), premiered in Europe. A number of his plays, now housed at Stanford University with his other papers, have never been performed. Saroyan worked rapidly, hardly editing his text. Much of his earnings he spent in drinking and gambling. From 1958 the author lived mainly in Paris, where he had an apartment. "I am an estranged man, said the liar: estranged from myself, from my family, my fellow man, my country, my world, my time, and my culture. I am not estranged from God, although I am a disbeliever in everything about God excepting God indefinable, inside all and careless of all." (from Here Comes There Goes You Know Who, 1961) In the late 1960s and the 1970s Saroyan managed to write himself out of debt and create substantial income. Saroyan died from cancer on May 18, 1981, in Fresno. "Everybody has got to die," he had said, "but I have always believed an exception would be made in my case." Half of his ashes were buried in California, and the rest in Armenia.

William Saroyan

“I should like to see any power in this world destroy this race, this small tribe of unimportant people whose wars have been fought and lost, whose structures have crumbled, whose literature is unread, whose music is unheard and whose prayers are no more answered. Go ahead, destroy this race! Destroy Armenia! See if you can do it. Send them away from their homes into the desert. Let them have neither bread or water. Burn their homes and churches. Then, see if they will not live again, see if they will not sing and pray again. For when two of them meet anywhere in the world, see if they will not create a New Armenia.”

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1st of september

  • 1387 - Tamerlane's forces surround and occupy Fort Van (Western Armenia).
  • 1850 - The "Ararat" weekly is first published in Tbilissi (Georgia). Gabriel Patkanyan is the publisher.
  • 1860 - The Armenian Benevolent Union is created.
  • 1861 - G.Yeranyan, N.Tashtchyan and T.Tshookhadjiyan publish the semi-annual "Armenian Lyre" periodical devoted to music.
  • 1868 - Opening of the Yerevan Gymnasium.
  • 1868 - Birth in Elizabetpol (Gandzak) of Melik Melikyan (Bolshevik politician). He was murdered in Baku in 1918.
  • 1886 - Minas Cheraz opens the Central College at Kalatia (Constantinople).
  • 1894 - The centenary of Armenian journalism is celebrated.
  • 1920 - The First Assembly of Eastern Peoples opens in Baku with Armenian participation.
  • 1958 - The Agriculture and Agrochemistry Research Institute is founded within Armenia's Ministry of Agriculture.
  • 1997 - Arkady Ghukasyan (former Minister for Foreign Affairs of Artsakh) is elected President of Artsakh.
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2nd of september

  • 1829 - The Russo-Turkish Peace Treaty was signed in Adrianople. Akhalkalak, Akhltskha, the eastern shore of the Black Sea, Anapa, and Poti are ceded to Russia.
  • 1837 - The Armenian Parish school begins its activities in Yerevan.
  • 1905 - Birth of Vardan Achemyan (actor). He died in 1977.
  • 1915 - The "Guichen" rescues the Armenian resistance fighters of the 40-day battle of Musa Dagh.
  • 1958 - The Bolshoi Theatre performs in Armenia.
  • 1991 - The District Councils of Artsakh (Mountainous Gharabagh) and Shahumian meet in Stepanakert and proclaim their statehood on the basis of their right to self-determination as given by the United Nations.
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3rd of september

  • 1804 - Russian forces lift their seige of Fort Yerevan and return to Georgia.
  • 1826 - The Russian army, led by General V.G.Madatov, defeats the Persians in the battle of Shamkhor.
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4 of september

  • 1834 - The Muradian College, created by the Mkhitarist Congregation of Venice, opens in Padua (northern Italy).
  • 1890 - Birth of Stepan Zoryan (writer) in Vanadzor. He died in 1967.
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5 of september

  • 1835 - Birth of the armenologist Karapet Ezyan (Ezov) in Moscow. He died in 1905 in St. Petersburg.
  • 1835 - Birth of Armenag Haikuni - Hambardzoom Djezmejyan - (writer, translator) in Constantinople. He died in 1866.
  • 1835 - Birth of the novelist Raffi (Hakop Melik-Hakopyan), in Paianjue (Salmast, Iran). He died in 1888 in Tbilissi (Georgia).
  • 1877 - The Tsar confirms the additional statutes on the serfs of Yerevan and Akhltskha Provinces.
  • 1969 - Death of academician Meliksetbek (armenologist) in Tbilissi (Georgia).
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6 of september

  • 1831 - Birth of Khoren Galfayan - Nar Pey - (public figure) in Constantinople. He died in 1892.
  • 1934 - Opening of Ghapan's ore (copper/molybdenum) concentration plant.
  • 1956 - Socialist twinning of Yerevan and Kiev (Ukrainian SSR).
  • 1965 - The International Conference on the Theory of Analytical Functions opens in Yerevan.
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7of september

  • 1878 - The Treaty of Berlin returns Karin (Western Armenia) to Turkey and puts the Armenian Reforms in Western Armenia in jeopardy.
  • 1925 - Birth of Aghasi Aivazyan (writer).
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8 of september

  • 1814 - Birth of Aghasi Aghbar (troubadour). He died in 1844.
  • 1855 - End of the ten-month defense of Sebastopol.
  • 1914 - Creation of the Armenian Volunteer Brigade.
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9 of september

  • 1919 - Illegal meeting of Bolsheviks in Yerevan. Election of the Committee for Armenia (ArmCom).
  • 1923 - Opening of the Armenian pavilion at the All-Union Agricultural Exhibition in Moscow
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10 of september

  • 1826 - End of the heroic defense of Fort Shooshee (Artsakh).
  • 1869 - Birth of cleric and ethno-musicologist Komitas (Soghomon Soghomonyan) in Kutina (Western Armenia). He died in Paris in 1935.
  • 1890 - Birth of Franz Werfel in Prague (Austrian novelist). He wrote "The Forty Days of Musa Dagh" (1933), a best-selling epic tale of Armenian resistance to the Turkish Genocide of 1915. He died in 1945.
  • 1896 - Armenian massacres begin in Akn.
  • 1898 - Andreas Artehruni (scientist) dies in Germany. He was born in 1847.
  • 1920 - The conference of Armenia's Communist organizations opens in Baku.
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11 of september

  • 1836 - The Raphaelian College of the Mkhitarist Congregation opens in Venice.
  • 1836 - Birth of Tigran Tshookhadjiyan - composer and creator of the first Armenian opera - in Constantinople. He died in 1898 in Smyrna.
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12 of september

  • 1795 - Shah Aha-Muhammad occupies Tbilissi (Georgia).
  • 1801 - Tsar Alexander the First proclaims the annexation of Georgia, Loree, Pambak, Kazakh, and Borchaloo Provinces to the Russian Empire.
  • 1828 - Russian forces and Armenian militia occupy Toprakhkaleh and liberate Alashkert.
  • 1828 - Birth of Mkrtich Peshiktashlyan (public figure) in Constantinople. He died in 1868.
  • 1870 - Birth of Yeghisheh Tadevossyan (artist). He died in 1936.
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