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France, Senate, Law

English Translation]

N°22 SENATE REGULAR SESSION OF 2000-2001

PROPOSED LAW

Adopted by the Senate concerning the recognition of the Armenian Genocide of 1915.

Single article

France publicly recognizes the Armenian Genocide of 1915.

Deliberated in public session in Paris on November 7, 2000.

The President,

Signed: Christian PONCELET.N° 22 S?NAT SESSION ORDINAIRE DE 2000-2001

PROPOSITION DE LOIAdopt?e par le S?nat

relative ? la reconnaissance du g?nocide arm?nien de 1915.

Article unique

La France reconna?t publiquement le g?nocide arm?nien de 1915.

D?lib?r?, en s?ance publque, ? Paris, le 7 novembre 2000.

Le Pr?sident,

Sign?: Christian PONCELET.

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Vatican City, Communiqu?

November 10, 2000

"...The Armenian genocide, which began the century, was a prologue to horrors that would follow. Two world wars, countless regional conflicts and deliberately organized campaigns of extermination took the lives of millions of faithful..."

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Joint Communiqu? of Pope John Paul II and Catholicos Karekin II

His Holiness Pope John Paul II, Bishop of Rome, and His Holiness Karekin II, Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians, give thanks to the Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, for enabling them to meet together on the occasion of the Jubilee of the Year 2000 and on the threshold of the 1700th anniversary of the proclamation of Christianity as the state religion of Armenia.

They also give thanks in the Holy Spirit that the fraternal relations between the See of Rome and the See of Etchmiadzin have further developed and deepened in recent years. This progress finds its expression in their present personal meeting and particularly in the gift of a relic of Saint Gregory the Illuminator, the holy missionary who converted the king of Armenia (301 A.D.) and established the line of Catholicoi of the Armenian Church. The present meeting builds upon the previous encounters between Pope Paul VI and Catholicos Vasken I (1970) and upon the two meetings between Pope John Paul II and Catholicos Karekin I (1996 and 1999). Pope John Paul II and Catholicos Karekin II now continue to look forward to a possible meeting in Armenia. On the present occasion, they wish to state together the following.

Together we confess our faith in the Triune God and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only Son of God, who became man for our salvation. We also believe in One, Catholic, Apostolic and Holy Church. The Church, as the Body of Christ, indeed, is one and unique. This is our common faith, based on the teachings of the Apostles and the Fathers of the Church. We acknowledge furthermore that both the Catholic Church and the Armenian Church have true sacraments, above all – by apostolic succession of bishops – the priesthood and the Eucharist. We continue to pray for full and visible communion between us. The liturgical celebration we preside over together, the sign of peace we exchange and the blessing we give together in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, testify that we are brothers in the episcopacy. Together we are jointly responsible for what is our common mission: to teach the apostolic faith and to witness to the love of Christ for all human beings, especially those living in difficult circumstances.

The Catholic Church and the Armenian Church share a long history of mutual respect, considering their various theological, liturgical and canonical traditions as complementary, rather than conflicting. Today, too, we have much to receive from one another. For the Armenian Church, the vast resources of Catholic learning can become a treasure and source of inspiration, through the exchange of scholars and students, through common translations and academic initiatives, through different forms of theological dialogue. Likewise, for the Catholic Church, the steadfast, patient faith of a martyred nation like Armenia can become a source of spiritual strength, particularly through common prayer. It is our firm desire to see these many forms of mutual exchange and rapprochement between us improved and intensified.

As we embark upon the third millennium, we look back on the past and forward to the future. As to the past, we thank God for the many blessings we have received from his infinite bounty, for the holy witness given by so many saints and martyrs, for the spiritual and cultural heritage bequeathed by our ancestors. Many times, however, both the Catholic Church and the Armenian Church have lived through dark and difficult periods. Christian faith was contested by atheistic and materialistic ideologies; Christian witness was opposed by totalitarian and violent regimes; Christian love was suffocated by individualism and the pursuit of personal interest. Leaders of nations no longer feared God, nor did they feel ashamed before humankind. For both of us, the 20th century was marked by extreme violence. The Armenian genocide, which began the century, was a prologue to horrors that would follow. Two world wars, countless regional conflicts and deliberately organized campaigns of extermination took the lives of millions of faithful. Nevertheless, without diminishing the horror of these events and their consequences, there may be a kind of divine challenge in them, if in response Christians are persuaded to join together in deeper friendship in the cause of Christian truth and love.

We now look to the future with hope and confidence. At this juncture in history, we see new horizons for us Christians and for the world. Both in the East and in the West, after having experienced the deadly consequences of godless regimes and lifestyles, many people are yearning for the knowledge of truth and the way of salvation. Together, guided by charity and respect for freedom, we seek to answer their desire, so as to bring them to the sources of authentic life and true happiness. We seek the intercession of the Apostles Peter and Paul, Thaddeus and Bartholomew, of Saint Gregory the Illuminator and all Saintly Pastors of the Catholic Church and the Armenian Church, and pray the Lord to guide our communities so that, with one voice, we may give witness to the Lord and proclaim the truth of salvation. We also pray that around the world, wherever members of the Armenian and the Catholic Church live side by side, all ordained ministers, religious and faithful will "help to carry one another’s burdens, and in this way obey the law of Christ" (Gal 6: 2). May they mutually sustain and assist one another, in full respect of their particular identities and ecclesiastical traditions, avoiding to prevail one over another: "so then, as often as we have the chance, we should do good to everyone, and especially to those who belong to our family in the faith" (Gal 6:10).

Finally, we seek the intercession of the Holy Mother of God for the sake of peace. May the Lord grant wisdom to the leaders of nations, so that justice and peace may prevail throughout the world. In these days in particular, we pray for peace in the Middle East. May all the children of Abraham grow in mutual respect and find appropriate ways for living peacefully together in this sacred part of the world.

[Original text: English]

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European Parliament, Resolution

November 15, 2000

"...Calls, therefore, on the Turkish Government and the Turkish Grand National Assembly to give fresh support to the Armenian minority, as an important part of Turkish society, in particular by public recognition of the genocide which that minority suffered before the establishment of the modern state of Turkey;..."

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Turkey's progress towards accession

European Parliament resolution on the 1999 Regular Report from the Commission on Turkey's progress towards accession

The European Parliament,

- having regard to Turkey's application for accession to the European Union,

- having regard to its resolution of 3 December 1998 on the European Strategy for Turkey(1),

- having regard to the 1999 Regular Report from the Commission on Turkey's progress towards accession,

- having regard to its resolution of 2 December 1999 on the implementation of measures to intensify the EC-Turkey customs union(2),

- having regard to Council Regulation (EC) No 764/2000 of 10 April 2000 regarding the implementation of measures to intensify the EC-Turkey Customs Union(3),

- having regard to its resolution of 6 September 2000 on measures to promote economic and social development in Turkey(4),

- having regard to its resolution of 7 September 2000 on the Turkish bombardment of northern Iraq(5),

- having regard to Rule 47(1) of the Rules of Procedure,

- having regard to the report of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Human Rights, Common Security and Defence Policy,

A. recalling the decision taken on 13 December 1999 by the European Council meeting in Helsinki to grant Turkey the status of candidate country for accession to the European Union and to establish an accession partnership and a single financial framework with a view to helping Turkey's application to progress in accordance with the Copenhagen Criteria,

B. whereas, following the granting to Turkey of candidate country status, the Union must now, by common agreement with the Turkish Government, devise and implement in an appropriate manner a credible comprehensive strategy with a view to accession,

C. whereas accession negotiations cannot begin until Turkey complies with the Copenhagen criteria,

D. whereas a climate of mutual trust should be created between Turkey and the European Union so that Turkey does not perceive the Union as an 'exclusive Christian club' but as a community of shared values which embrace, in particular, tolerance for other religions and cultures, and whereas no formal cultural or religious conditions are attached to accession to the European Union,

E. whereas a clear and detailed programme will be an effective encouragement to accelerate reform in favour of protection of human rights and democracy, and will greatly strengthen the hand of those in the Turkish government, parliament, and civil society institutions who are keen to establish full respect for basic rights in their country,

F. noting the legislative changes carried out along the path towards democratisation since the 1995 constitutional reform and the establishment in the Turkish Grand National Assembly of the Conciliation Committee, which is responsible for reforming the constitution,

G. welcoming the signature by Turkey on 15 August and 8 September 2000 of four important UN conventions, on political, civil, social and cultural rights respectively, which must be ratified as soon as possible so that human rights and democratic pluralism may be guaranteed in that country,

H. emphasising that, despite the progress already achieved along the path towards democratisation, human rights and the situation of minorities must continue to be improved by the implementation of those conventions,

I. whereas, according to Lord Russell-Johnston, President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, the confirmation by Ankara of the sentence imposed on former Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan is not in conformity with the principles of democratic pluralism,

J. whereas Resolution 1250 of the UN Security Council called on the Turkish and Greek Cypriot communities to begin negotiations in the autumn of 1999, and whereas no progress in that direction has been recorded, despite the encouraging contacts made under the aegis of the UN Secretary-General in December 1999 and in January 2000; regretting, on the contrary, the violation of the military status quo by Turkish occupation forces in the village of Strovilia since 1 July 2000,

K. whereas the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in 'Lo?zidou v Turkey' (No 15318/89), handed down on 28 July 1998 and ruling in favour of the plaintiff, has still not been implemented,

L. whereas the election to the Presidency of the Republic of Mr Sezer, who has demonstrated his commitment to the rule of law, will make it easier for the necessary reforms to be successfully completed,

M. noting Turkey's place in the economy of Europe - it had a GDP of USD 185 billion in 1999 - and the links already established between Turkey and the European Union, with 53% of Turkish exports going to current Member States of the European Union and Turkey being the sixth largest importer of EU products,

N. whereas, in December 1999, the package of economic reforms demanded by the IMF with a view to introducing budgetary austerity and to curbing galloping inflation was approved by the Turkish Parliament,

O. encouraging the Turkish Government, on the one hand, to commit itself to carrying out structural reforms which, ranging from dismantling state subsidies to reorganising pensions and accelerating privatisation, must therefore strengthen the bases of a free market economy accessible to all and, on the other, to continue its efforts to adopt Community legislation,

P. recognising Turkey's important geostrategic position, having regard to its role within the Atlantic Alliance and its status of WEU associate member, but noting that geopolitical and strategic considerations must not be the decisive factors in negotiations about accession,

Q. welcoming the fact that Turkey has signalled its intention to commit military capabilities under the common European security and defence policy,

R. regretting and unequivocally condemning the recent incursion by the Turkish Air Force into Iraqi airspace when Kendakor was bombed on 15 August 2000,

S. endorsing the view set out in the Commission report that Turkey has undertaken a significant process of self-evaluation as regards the level of harmonisation of its legislation with the acquis communautaire and that it is the only candidate country to have joined the Customs Union,

T. welcoming the decision taken in this spirit on 5 July 2000 by the Turkish Parliament to include in the eighth five-year development plan the principles governing transposition of the acquis communautaire and to establish a Secretariat for the European Union responsible for coordinating the work required for such transposition,

U. emphasising, however, that a sustained effort is still needed to push through the current reform of the Turkish Civil Code, with particular regard to parental and women's rights,

V. expressing its concern about the bill seeking to make it possible to dismiss civil servants on ideological or religious grounds,

1. Welcomes the resumption of institutional activities and political dialogue in the Association Council, which met on 11 April 2000 after being suspended for three years, and welcomes in particular the recent implementation of the Association Council's conclusions with the initiation of an analytical review of the acquis communautaire through the establishment of eight subcommittees entrusted with the task of setting priorities for incorporation of the acquis; notes with satisfaction that the first meetings of three of those subcommittees have been successful and trusts that the remaining subcommittees" meetings will be held by the end of this year;

2. Encourages the Turkish Government to step up its efforts to achieve democratisation, with particular regard to reform of the Penal Code, independence of the judiciary, freedom of expression, the rights of minorities and the separation of powers, and especially the impact of the role of the army on Turkish political life;

3. Calls on the Turkish Government and Parliament to ratify and implement the UN conventions on political, civil, social and cultural rights which it signed recently;

4. Encourages in this respect the Turkish Parliament and Government to incorporate in the government programme the report drawn up by the Secretariat of the Turkish Supreme Coordination Council for Human Rights; welcomes the Turkish Council of Ministers" adoption of this report on 21 September 2000 as a "reference and working document"; and calls for the section on cultural rights to be reinserted into the report, with specific measures to protect the rights of minorities being added thereto;

5. Looks forward to the early abolition of the State Security Courts and welcomes the adoption of the law suspending the prosecution of, and penalties imposed on, press and broadcasting offences;

6. Calls, initially, for an amnesty with a view to achieving a reform of the Penal Code in the medium term so that it complies with the universal principle of freedom of expression;

7. Views the recent decision by the Constitutional Court on the law offering a reprieve to those who have committed press offences as a step that reinforces the rule of law; encourages the competent authorities to take this opportunity to continue their reforms in this direction, knowing that this process will logically lead them to a fundamental reconsideration of Article 312 of the Penal Code;

8. Calls, after the many promises made to this effect, for the death penalty to be abolished as soon as possible as part of the reform of the Penal Code and, pending such abolition, for the current moratorium on executions to be maintained;

9. Recalls the importance it attaches to recognition of the basic rights of the cultural, linguistic and religious groups in Turkey, who make up the country's multifaceted population;

10. Calls, therefore, on the Turkish Government and the Turkish Grand National Assembly to give fresh support to the Armenian minority, as an important part of Turkish society, in particular by public recognition of the genocide which that minority suffered before the establishment of the modern state of Turkey;

11. Notes the decisions taken on 30 November 1999 to lift the state of emergency in the Province of Siirt and on 26 June 2000 in the Province of Van, and calls on the Turkish Government to lift the state of emergency in the other provinces of the south-eastern region as well; calls for a specific solution to be found for the Kurdish people, encompassing the requisite political, economic and social responses;

12. Urges the Turkish Government genuinely to redirect its policy with a view to improving the human rights situation of all its citizens, including those belonging to groups whose roots go back deep into the country's past, by putting an end to the political, social and cultural discrimination which they suffer, and in order to find, for those of Kurdish origin, a political solution which respects the territorial integrity of Turkey; calls also on the Turkish authorities to engage in a dialogue with the political representatives of the Kurdish community, especially the mayors of towns in the south-east of the country;

13. Demands the release of Leyla Zana, winner of the European Parliament Sakharov Prize, and of the former MPs of Kurdish origin imprisoned because of the views they hold;

14. Welcomes the Turkish Government's adoption in September 2000 of an action plan which aims to restore economic balance with a view to resolving regional disparities by committing appropriate resources, and to promote the reopening of hamlets and the reconstruction of villages so that their inhabitants may return to them, together with other measures aimed at boosting investment in the south-east;

15. Welcomes the decisions taken by the Helsinki European Council to set up a single financial framework, based on an appropriate level of resources, and an accession partnership; calls on the Council and Commission to implement those two decisions as soon as possible and to reassess the amount of the European Union's financial assistance to Turkey, which should meet the needs of the pre-accession strategy on the basis of previous European Council conclusions with particular reference to the issue of human rights as well as the issues referred to in paragraphs 4 and 9(a) of the Helsinki conclusions;

16. Calls on the European Council, in accordance with the provisions of the European Union's political dialogue with the associated countries, to take note of the Turkish Government's request to be involved in one way or another in the process of developing the common foreign and security policy and welcomes Turkey's determination to contribute to improving European capabilities within the framework of the common European security and defence policy; considers that any such contribution has to be preceded by a clearly stated policy of respect for the territorial integrity of Member States;

17. Welcomes the start of negotiations on confidence-building measures agreed on 31 October 2000 by the foreign ministers of both Turkey and Greece;

18. Calls on the Turkish Government, in accordance with Resolution 1250 of the UN Security Council, to contribute towards the creation, without preconditions, of a climate conducive to negotiations between the Greek and Turkish Cypriot communities, with a view to reaching a negotiated, comprehensive, just and lasting settlement which complies with the relevant UN Security Council resolutions and the recommendations of the UN General Assembly, as reaffirmed by the European Council; hopes that this will be possible during the fifth round of proximity talks which will begin on 10 November 2000 and that those talks will result in bilateral negotiations, under the aegis of the UN, which will enable substantial progress to be made;

19. Calls on the Turkish Government to withdraw its occupation forces from northern Cyprus;

20. Calls on the Turkish Government, as it has proposed, to improve its relations with all its neighbours in the Caucasus within the framework of a Stability Pact for the region;

21. Calls in this connection on the Turkish Government to launch a dialogue with Armenia aimed in particular at re-establishing normal diplomatic and trade relations between the two countries and lifting the current blockade;

22. Calls on the Turkish Government, in cooperation with the Commission, to pursue its efforts with a view to enhancing the implementation of the pre-accession strategy as regards the incorporation of the acquis communautaire, notably by improving the situation in fields such as the single market, agriculture, transport, the environment and administrative organisation;

23. Welcomes the Turkish Government's recent statement that the reform process, which covers the amendments to the Turkish Penal and Civil Codes, including parental and women's rights, would be stepped up during the coming year;

24. Calls on the Turkish Government to comply with previous and future decisions of the European Court of Human Rights and to consider the proposals made by the Council of Europe with regard to the training of judges and police officers;

25. Reminds Turkey also of the commitments it has given within the Council of Europe and calls on it to transpose Council of Europe instruments in particular so as to permit more effective monitoring of the application of political measures that are part of the accession partnership;

26. Takes the view that Turkey does not currently meet all the Copenhagen political criteria and reiterates its proposal for the setting up of discussion forums, consisting of eminent politicians from the European Union and Turkey as well as representatives of civil society, in order to promote political dialogue and help Turkey progress along the path towards accession; welcomes the initiative taken by the former President of Turkey, Mr Demirel, to establish a Europe-Turkey Foundation, which might also be involved in those forums;

27. Calls on the Commission to devise and implement additional programmes in the field of education, given the exceptionally high proportion of the population (50%) under 25, in order to help foster understanding of the basic principles of the shared values of Europe;

28. Calls on the Council and the Commission to find ways to improve the effectiveness of MEDA Programmes for democracy in Turkey with a view to strengthening civil society there, consolidating the democratic system and supporting free and independent media in that country;

29. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Commission, the Council, the governments and parliaments of the Member States and to the Turkish Government and Grand National Assembly.

(1) OJ C 398, 21.12.1998, p. 57.

(2) OJ C 194, 11.7.2000, p. 65.

(3) OJ L 94, 14.4.2000, p. 6.

(4) Texts Adopted, Item 3.

(5) Texts Adopted, Item 18.

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Italy, Chamber of Deputies, Resolution

November 16, 2000

Resolution

The Italian Chamber of Deputies has observed that on November 15, 2000, the European Parliament approved by a large majority a proposal deriving from the Periodic Review on the progress made by Turkey towards admission to the European Union, a review completed by the European Commission in 1999. The Turkish government has been encouraged to intensify its efforts towards democratization, especially in the fields of criminal law reform, independence of the judiciary, freedom of expression, and the rights of minorities.

The Italian Chamber of Deputies has also observed that the recent resolution deals with questions concerning the Armenian people in three paragraphs of particular significance: "we urge recognition of the genocide inflicted upon the Armenian minority [within the Ottoman Empire] committed before the creation of the modern Republic of Turkey (paragraph 10); improvements of relations with Turkey's neighbors in the Caucuses, as proposed by the Turkish government itself (paragraph 20);" and, in support of the suggestions put forward in paragraph 21 by the Hon. D. Cohn-Bendit, President of the Bipartisan Parliamentary Commission on EU-Turkish Relations, "invites the Turkish government to open negotiations with the Republic of Armenia, restore diplomatic relations and trade between the two countries, placing an end to the blockade currently in place.

The Chamber of Deputies therefore urges the Italian Government, in concordance with the proposals described above, to pursue energetically the easing of all tensions between peoples and minorities in that area [i.e. the Caucasus], in order to create, with due observance of the territorial integrity of the two states, pacific coexistence and respect for human rights, thereby expediting a more rapid integration of Turkey within the European Community.

(Unofficial translation)

RISOLUZIONI

Allegato A

Seduta n. 813 del 17/11/2000

TESTO AGGIORNATO AL 27 NOVEMBRE 2000

La Camera,

premesso che:

il 15 novembre il Parlamento europeo, discutendo la relazione periodica della Commissione sui progressi realizzati dalla Turchia verso l'adesione all'Unione europea, ha approvato tale relazione che contiene tra l'altro i seguenti principi che riguardano il popolo armeno: Articolo 10 «Invita pertanto il governo turco e la Grande Assemblea Nazionale turca a sostenere maggiormente la minoranza armena in quanto parte importante della societ? turca, riconoscendo pubblicamente, in particolare, il genocidio commesso ai danni di tale minoranza anteriormente allo stabilimento della moderna Repubblica di Turchia»; Articolo 21 «Invita a questo proposito il governo turco ad avviare un dialogo con l'Armenia, segnatamente al fine di ristabilire relazioni diplomatiche e commerciali normali tra i due paesi e di togliere il blocco attualmente in vigore»;

impegna il Governo

anche sulla base di quanto sopra esposto ad adoperarsi per il definitivo superamento di ogni contrapposizione nella regione al fine di creare le premesse per la corretta tutela dei diritti umani nella prospettiva del progressivo avvicinamento ed integrazione della regione con l'Unione europea.

«Pagliarini, Pisanu, Selva, Follini, Rivolta, Morselli, Calzavara, Trantino, Mitolo, Masi, Lo Jucco, Di Luca, Palmizio».

(16 novembre 2000)

La Camera,

preso atto che:

il 15 novembre il Parlamento europeo ha approvato a larga maggioranza una risoluzione sulla Relazione periodica 1999 della Commissione europea sui progressi della Turchia verso l'adesione che incoraggia il Governo turco a intensificare i suoi sforzi di democratizzazione, soprattutto nel campo della riforma del codice penale, dell'indipendenza della giustizia, della libert? di espressione e dei diritti delle minoranze; la risoluzione in particolare affronta questioni che riguardano il popolo armeno in tre paragrafi assai significativi: «invito al riconoscimento del genocidio ai danni della minoranza armena, commesso anteriormente allo stabilimento della moderna Repubblica turca» (paragrafo 10); «miglioramento delle relazioni con tutti i vicini del Caucaso, come proposto dallo steso Governo turco» (paragrafo 20); sottolineando lo spirito del paragrafo 21, proposto dall'onorevole Cohn-Bendit, presidente della commissione parlamentare mista UE-Turchia, che «invita il Governo turco ad avviare un dialogo con l'Armenia, segnatamente al fine di ristabilire relazioni diplomatiche e commerciali normali tra i due paesi e di togliere il blocco attualmente in vigore»,

impegna il Governo

in coerenza con i principi sopra esposti ad adoperarsi per il completo superamento di ogni contrapposizione tra popoli e minoranze diverse nell'area al fine di creare le condizioni, nel rispetto dell'integrit? territoriale dei due Stati, per la pacifica convivenza e la corretta tutela dei diritti umani nella prospettiva di una pi? rapida integrazione della Turchia e dell'intera regione nell'Unione europea.

«Mussi, Paissan, Soro, Monaco, Grimaldi, Manzione, Crema, Bastianoni, Mazzocchin».

(16 novembre 2000)

La Camera,

preso atto che:

il 15 novembre il Parlamento europeo ha approvato a larga maggioranza una risoluzione sulla Relazione periodica 1999 della Commissione europea sui progressi della Turchia verso l'adesione che incoraggia il Governo turco a intensificare i suoi sforzi di democratizzazione, soprattutto nel campo della riforma del codice penale, dell'indipendenza della giustizia, della libert? di espressione e dei diritti delle minoranze; la risoluzione in particolare affronta questioni che riguardano il popolo armeno in tre paragrafi assai significativi: «invito al riconoscimento del genocidio ai danni della minoranza armena, commesso anteriormente allo stabilimento della moderna Repubblica turca» (paragrafo 10); «miglioramento delle relazioni con tutti i vicini del Caucaso, come proposto dallo stesso Governo turco» (paragrafo 20); sottolineando lo spirito del paragrafo 21, proposto dall'onorevole Cohn-Bendit, presidente della commissione parlamentare mista UE-Turchia, che «invita il Governo turco ad avviare un dialogo con l'Armenia, segnatamente al fine di ristabilire relazioni diplomatiche e commerciali normali tra i due paesi e di togliere il blocco attualmente in vigore»,

impegna il Governo

in coerenza con i principi sopra esposti ad adoperarsi per il completo superamento di ogni contrapposizione tra popoli e minoranze diverse nell'area al fine di creare le condizioni, nel rispetto dell'integrit? territoriale dei due Stati, per la pacifica convivenza e la corretta tutela dei diritti umani nella prospettiva di una pi? rapida integrazione della Turchia e dell'intera regione nell'Unione europea.

«Mussi, Pagliarini, Paissan, Pisanu, Soro, Selva, Monaco, Follini, Grimaldi, Rivolta, Manzione, Morselli, Crema, Calzavara, Bastianoni, Trantino, Mazzocchin, Mitolo, Pezzoni, Masi, Lo Jucco, Brunetti, Giovanni Bianchi, Leccese, Rizzi, Ballaman, Lento, Bosco, Palmizio».

(16 novembre 2000)

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France, Law

January 29, 2001

Law no. 2001-70 of January 29, 2001, relating to the recognition of the Armenian Genocide of 1915:

The National Assembly and the Senate have adopted and the President of the Republic proclaims the following law:

France publicly recognizes the Armenian Genocide of 1915.

The present law shall be executed as a law of the state.

Done at Paris on January 29, 2001.

Jacque Chirac

For the President of the Republic:

Prime Minister Lionel Jospin

(1) Preparatory documents: Law no. 2001-70.

Senate: Proposed law no. 60, discussed and adopted on November 7, 2000.

National Assembly: Proposed law adopted by the Senate, No. 2688.

Report by Fran?ois Rochebloine for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, no. 2855, discussed and adopted on January 18, 2001.

(Unofficial translation)

LOI no 2001-70 du 29 janvier 2001 relative ? la reconnaissance du g?nocide arm?nien de 1915 (1)

L'Assembl?e nationale et le S?nat ont adopt?,

Le Pr?sident de la R?publique promulgue la loi dont la teneur suit:

Article unique

La France reconna?t publiquement le g?nocide arm?nien de 1915.

La pr?sente loi sera ex?cut?e comme loi de l'Etat.

Fait ? Paris, le 29 janvier 2001.

Jacques Chirac

Par le Pr?sident de la R?publique:

Le Premier ministre,

Lionel Jospin

(1) Travaux pr?paratoires: loi no 2001-70.

S?nat: Proposition de loi no 60 (2000-2001); Discussion et adoption le 7 novembre 2000.

Assembl?e nationale: Proposition de loi, adopt?e par le S?nat, no 2688;

Rapport de M. Fran?ois Rochebloine, au nom de la commission des affaires ?trang?res, no 2855; Discussion et adoption le 18 janvier 2001.

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Council of Europe, Parliamentary Assembly, Resolution

April 24, 2001

Recognition of the Armenian genocide

Doc. 9056

Written Declaration No. 320

This written declaration commits only the members who have signed it

Commemorating today the anniversary of the first genocide of the 20th century -- the Armenian genocide -- and paying tribute to the memory of its victims;

Condemning all manifestations of the crime of genocide as crimes perpetrated against humanity;

Considering that the unequivocal repudiation of the acts of genocide is a necessary means to help prevent its recurrence;

Taking note of the fact that various European institutions, parliaments of a number of member countries of the Council of Europe have adopted resolutions and statements recognising the Armenian genocide, in the case of the National Assembly of France a law;

Considering that the recognition by the international community of the Armenian genocide will eventually allow the Turkish authorities a similar admission, and as a result will lead to improved relations between Armenia-Turkey, and thus, contribute to regional peace, security and stability,

The undersigned, members of the Assembly, appeal to all the members of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe to take the necessary steps for the recognition of the genocide perpetrated by the Ottoman Empire against the Armenians at the beginning of the 20th century.

Signed

Signed : [1]

Marmazov, Ukraine, UEL

Alis Font, Andorra, SOC

Angelovicov?, Slovakia, SOC

Auken, Denmark, UEL

Bartumeu Cassany, Andorra, SOC

Begaj, Albania, SOC

Brunetti, Italy, UEL

Burataeva, Russia, EPP/CD

Burbiene, Lithuania, SOC

Carvalho, Portugal, UEL

Christodoulides, Cyprus, UEL

Churkin, Russia, UEL

Clinton-Davis, United Kingdom, SOC

Cox, United Kingdom, SOC

Cryer, United Kingdom, SOC

Davis, United Kingdom, SOC

Dimas, Greece, EPP/CD

Dokle, Albania, SOC

Duka-Z?lyomi, Slovakia, EPP/CD

Etherington, United Kingdom, SOC

Fern?ndez Aguilar, Spain, EPP/CD

Fyfe, United Kingdom, SOC

Galoyan, Armenia, EPP/CD

Gamzatova, Russia, UEL

Gjellerod, Denmark, SOC

Gostev, Russia, UEL

Hadjidemetriou, Cyprus, SOC

Hancock, United Kingdom, LDR

Hoffmann, Germany, SOC

Hovhannisyan, Armenia, EDG

Ivanenko, Russia, LDR

Jirousov?, Czech Republic, UEL

Judd, United Kingdom, SOC

Khunov, Ukraine, UEL

Kotsonis, Greece, SOC

Kres?k, Slovakia, LDR

L?pez Gonz?lez, Spain, SOC

Manukyan, Armenia, UEL

Marty, Switzerland, LDR

Melnikov, Russia, UEL

Mikutiene, Lithuania, LDR

Neguta, Moldova, UEL

Olekas, Lithuania, SOC

Oliynyk, Ukraine, UEL

Pekhtin, Russia, EPP/CD

Pinggera, Italy, EPP/CD

Ponsonby, United Kingdom, SOC

Popovski, "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", SOC

Postoico, Moldova, UEL

Rapson, United Kingdom, SOC

Robol, Italy, EPP/CD

Rustamyan, Armenia, SOC

Shaklein, Russia, UEL

Slutsky, Russia, SOC

Stefani, Albania, SOC

Stepov?, Czech Republic, SOC

?vec, Slovakia, LDR

Taliadouros, Greece, EPP/CD

Troncho, Portugal, SOC

Urbanczyk, Poland, SOC

Ustiugov, Russia, EPP/CD

Valk, Netherlands, SOC

Vis, United Kingdom, SOC

Total = 63

[1] SOC: Socialist Group

EPP/CD: Group of the European People’s Party

EDG:European Democratic Group

LDR : Liberal, Democratic and Reformers’ Group

UEL : Group of the Unified European Left

NR : Not registered in a group

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Common Declaration of His Holiness John Paul II and His Holiness Karekin II at Holy Etchmiadzin, Republic of Armenia

September 27, 2001

COMMON DECLARATION

OF HIS HOLINESS JOHN PAUL II

AND HIS HOLINESS KAREKIN II

AT HOLY ETCHMIADZIN, REPUBLIC OF ARMENIA

The celebration of the 1700th anniversary of the proclamation of Christianity as the religion of Armenia has brought us together — John Paul II, Bishop of Rome and Pastor of the Catholic Church, and Karekin II, the Supreme Patriarch and Catholicos of All Armenians — and we thank God for giving us this joyous opportunity to join again in common prayer, in praise of his all-holy Name. Blessed be the Holy Trinity — Father, Son and Holy Spirit — now and for ever.

As we commemorate this wondrous event, we remember with reverence, gratitude and love the great confessor of our Lord Jesus Christ, Saint Gregory the Illuminator, as well as his collaborators and successors. They enlightened not only the people of Armenia but also others in the neighbouring countries of the Caucasus. Thanks to their witness, dedication and example, the Armenian people in A. D. 301 were bathed in the divine light and earnestly turned to Christ as the Truth, the Life, and the Way to salvation.

They worshipped God as their Father, professed Christ as their Lord and invoked the Holy Spirit as their Sanctifier; they loved the apostolic universal Church as their Mother. Christ’s supreme commandment, to love God above all and our neighbour as ourselves, became a way of life for the Armenians of old. Endowed with great faith, they chose to bear witness to the Truth and accept death when necessary, in order to share eternal life. Martyrdom for the love of Christ thus became a great legacy of many generations of Armenians. The most valuable treasure that one generation could bequeath to the next was fidelity to the Gospel, so that, with the grace of the Holy Spirit, the young would become as resolute as their ancestors in bearing witness to the Truth. The extermination of a million and a half Armenian Christians, in what is generally referred to as the first genocide of the twentieth century, and the subsequent annihilation of thousands under the former totalitarian regime are tragedies that still live in the memory of the present-day generation. These innocents who were butchered in vain are not canonized, but many among them were certainly confessors and martyrs for the name of Christ. We pray for the repose of their souls, and urge the faithful never to lose sight of the meaning of their sacrifice. We thank God for the fact that Christianity in Armenia has survived the adversities of the past seventeen centuries, and that the Armenian Church is now free to carry out her mission of proclaiming the Good News in the modern Republic of Armenia and in many areas near and far where Armenian communities are present.

Armenia is again a free country, as in the early days of King Tiridates and Saint Gregory the Illuminator. Over the past ten years, the right of citizens in the burgeoning Republic to worship and practise their religion in freedom has been recognized. In Armenia and in the diaspora, new Armenian institutions have been established, churches have been built, associations and schools have been founded. In all of this we acknowledge the loving hand of God. For he has made his miracles visible in the continuing history of a small nation, which has preserved its particular identity thanks to its Christian faith. Because of their faith and their Church, the Armenian people have developed a unique Christian culture, which is indeed a most valuable contribution to the treasury of Christianity as a whole.

The example of Christian Armenia testifies that faith in Christ brings hope to every human situation, no matter how difficult. We pray that the saving light of Christian faith may shine on both the weak and the strong, on both the developed and developing nations of this world. Particularly today, the complexities and challenges of the international situation require a choice between good and evil, darkness and light, humanity and inhumanity, truth and falsehood. Present issues of law, politics, science, and family life touch upon the very meaning of humanity and its vocation. They call today’s Christians no less than the martyrs of other times to bear witness to the Truth even at the risk of paying a high price.

This witness will be all the more convincing if all of Christ’s disciples could profess together the one faith and heal the wounds of division among themselves. May the Holy Spirit guide Christians, and indeed all people of good will, on the path of reconciliation and brotherhood. Here at Holy Etchmiadzin we renew our solemn commitment to pray and work to hasten the day of communion among all the members of Christ’s faithful flock, with true regard for our respective sacred traditions.

With God’s help, we shall do nothing against love, but "surrounded by so great a cloud of witnesses, we shall lay aside every weight, and sin which clings so closely, and shall run with perseverance the race that is set before us" (cf. Heb 12:1)

We urge our faithful to pray without ceasing that the Holy Spirit will fill us all, as he did the holy martyrs of every time and place, with the wisdom and courage to follow Christ, the Way, the Truth and the Life.

Holy Etchmiadzin, 27 September 2001

His Holiness John Paul II

His Holiness Karekin II

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Canada, Senate, Resolution

June 13, 2002

Debates of the Senate (Hansard)

1st Session, 37th Parliament,

Volume 139, Issue 124

Thursday, June 13, 2002

That this House calls upon the Government of Canada:

1) to recognize the genocide of the Armenians and to condemn any attempt to deny or distort a historical truth as being anything less than genocide, a crime against humanity, and

2) to designate April 24th of every year hereafter throughout Canada as a day of remembrance of the 1.5 million Armenians who fell victim to the first genocide of the twentieth century.

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Argentina, Senate, Resolution

August 20, 2003

Bill Number: 664/03

Type of Bill: Declaration

National Senate

Secretary of Parliament

Director of Publications

(S-664/03)

Declaration

The Honorable National Senate

It is declared

With deep sorrow we commemorate the 88th anniversary of the genocide of 1.5 million Armenians, perpetrated by the Turkish State between the years 1915 and 1923.

This is also a manifesto of much empathy repudiating the considerable crimes against humanity that are still unpunished.

Guillermo Ra?l Jenefes.-

Reasons

Mr. President:

April 24 is the commemorative anniversary of the first genocide of the Twentieth Century committed by the Turkish government in a planned and premeditated way. 1.5 million Armenians were victims of the barbarity and the horror of the massacres and deportations by the hand of the Turks, who seized the lands and denied Armenians the right to live in their historic homeland.

The politics of destruction and the intent of total annihilation of a nation and the later fanaticism to erase the memory of the recent past—the Turkish Government went too far to try to convince the world of their innocence denying the genocide and the existence of the "Armenian Question".

Humankind did not monitor such dangers, and, together with indifference and oversight, this led to the repetition of genocidal acts. The international community is owed the admission of the responsibility of the perpetrators for what they have done, since it is an international crime of genocide and a violation of human rights.

The European Parliament, the United Nations Human Rights Commission and several countries have acknowledged the necessity of recognizing the Armenian Genocide, considering it an irrefutable, historical truth.

Mr. President, justice is the unique guarantee of human dignity; therefore I seek our equal the endorsement of the present bill.

Guillermo Ra?l Jenefes.-

(unofficial translation)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

El texto Completo Original del Expediente

Numero de Proyecto: 664/03

Tipo de Proyecto: PROYECTO DE DECLARACION

Senado de la Naci?n

Secretar?a Parlamentaria

Direcci?n Publicaciones

(S-664/03)

PROYECTO DE DECLARACI?N

El Honorable Senado de la Naci?n

Declara

Su profundo pesar en la conmemoraci?n del 88° aniversario del genocidio de 1.500.000 armenios, perpetrado por el estado turco entre los a?os 1915 y 1923.

Asimismo manifiesta su m?s en?rgico repudio hacia los cr?menesconsiderados de lesa humanidad que a?n contin?an impunes.

Guillermo Ra?l Jenefes.-

FUNDAMENTOS

Se?or Presidente:

El 24 de abril se conmemora un aniversario m?s del primer genocidio del siglo XX cometido por el gobierno turco en forma planificada y premeditada. Un mill?n y medio de armenios fueron v?ctimas de la barbarie y el horror de las masacres y deportaciones en manos de los turcos, quienes usurparon sus tierras y negaron el derecho de habitar sus hist?ricos territorios.

La pol?tica de destrucci?n e intento de aniquilaci?n total de una naci?n y el posterior fanatismo por borrar la memoria del pasado reciente, llega a tal punto que el gobierno turco pretende convencer al mundo de su inocencia negando el genocidio y la existencia de una "Cuesti?n Armenia".

La humanidad no puede seguir expuesta ante tanta impunidad, pues ?sta, junto con la indiferencia y el olvido, conduce a la reiteraci?n de actos genocidas. La comunidad internacional deber?a exigir la admisi?n de la responsabilidad a los autores de estos hechos, ya que coinciden con el concepto de delito internacional de genocidio y violaci?n de los derechos humanos.

Tanto el Parlamento Europeo, como as? tambi?n la Comisi?n de Derechos Humanos de la ONU y diversos pa?ses han se?alado la necesidad de reconocimiento del genocidio armenio, al considerarlo una verdad hist?rica irrefutable.

Se?or presidente, la justicia es la ?nica garante de la dignidad humana, es por eso que solicito a mis pares la aprobaci?n del presente proyecto.

Guillermo Ra?l Jenefes.-

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Switzerland (Helvetic Confederation), National Council, Resolution

December 16, 2003

02.3069 - Postulat.

Reconnaissance du g?nocide des Arm?niens de 1915

D?pos? par: Vaudroz Jean-Claude

Repris par: de Buman Dominique

Date de d?p?t: 18-03-2002

D?pos? au: Conseil national

Etat actuel: Liquid?

Texte d?pos?

Le Conseil national reconna?t le g?nocide des Arm?niens de 1915. Il demande au Conseil f?d?ral d'en prendre acte et de transmettre sa position par les voies diplomatiques usuelles.

D?veloppement

1. L'extermination des Arm?niens de l'Empire Ottoman pendant la Premi?re Guerre mondiale a an?anti plus d'un million de personnes d?port?es et massacr?es sur l'ordre du pouvoir ottoman. Ces faits, incontestables dans leur signification et leur ampleur, ont servi de r?f?rence ? Raphael Lemkin, le juriste qui a d?fini la notion de g?nocide. Les normes fix?es par l'ONU dans la Convention de 1948 correspondent tr?s exactement au processus de destruction subi par les Arm?niens.

2. Par la reconnaissance du g?nocide des Arm?niens, la Suisse rendra justice aux victimes, aux rescap?s et ? leurs descendants et contribuera ? la pr?vention d'autres crimes contre l'humanit?. C'est un geste d?cisif par lequel la Suisse montrera son engagement pour les droits de l'homme, le respect des minorit?s et la justice p?nale internationale. Elle rappelle en outre le caract?re imprescriptible des crimes contre l'humanit? et entend contribuer ? la lutte contre le n?gationnisme.

3. Le g?nocide des Arm?niens a ?t? reconnu par l'ONU en 1985 ? travers l'adoption du rapport d'une de ses commissions d'experts, la sous-commission pour la pr?vention des discriminations et pour la protection des minorit?s, puis par le Parlement europ?en dans une r?solution en 1987. Au cours de ces derni?res ann?es, les parlements fran?ais, su?dois et italien ont fait de m?me, ainsi que de nombreux parlements en Europe et ailleurs. Le canton de Gen?ve l'a fait ? deux reprises: par le Grand Conseil en 1998 et par le Conseil d'Etat en d?cembre dernier. On peut citer enfin les prises de position du Conseil oecum?nique des Eglises, ? travers la D?claration adopt?e en 1983.

4. Le 13 mars 2001, le Conseil national, apr?s d?cision unanime des Commissions de politique ext?rieure des deux Chambres, a transmis au Conseil f?d?ral la p?tition de l'Association des opposants au g?nocide (Francfort-sur-le-Main) "pour qu'il en prenne acte" et l'ont invit? ? "aborder la question du g?nocide arm?nien dans le cadre du dialogue politique entre la Suisse et la Turquie". Il est donc naturel que le Conseil national ent?rine cette prise de position par une d?claration solennelle.

5. Le Conseil national souhaite par l'adoption de ce postulat contribuer ? l'?tablissement d'une paix durable entre Turcs et Arm?niens, paix qui ne peut s'?tablir que sur une vision commune et conforme ? la v?rit? de l'histoire.

Prise de position du Conseil f?d?ral 15-05-2002

Le Conseil f?d?ral a plusieurs fois d?j?, dans ses r?ponses ? des interventions parlementaires - dont r?cemment le postulat Zisyadis 00.3245, "G?nocide arm?nien. Reconnaissance par la Suisse", du 6 juin 2000 - regrett? et condamn? les tragiques d?portations en masse et les massacres qui ont marqu? la fin de l'Empire Ottoman et ont fait de tr?s nombreuses victimes dans la population arm?nienne. La Turquie ne conteste pas ces massacres, mais porte sur leur organisation d?lib?r?e par les personnalit?s au pouvoir ? l'?poque un jugement diff?rent de celui de nombreux historiens et historiennes. Le Conseil f?d?ral estime que cette question rel?ve de la recherche historique.

La politique ext?rieure de la Suisse vise ? un ?quilibre durable dans le Caucase, en particulier entre la Turquie et l'Arm?nie. Dans ce contexte, il importe que le dialogue s'instaure dans la r?gion elle-m?me. La question turco-arm?nienne a ?t? soulev?e ? plusieurs reprises lors de contacts bilat?raux officiels avec la Turquie. Il y a par exemple ?t? question des activit?s du comit? de r?conciliation turco-arm?nien et de l'acc?s des chercheuses et des chercheurs aux archives. La conviction pr?vaut que, s'agissant d'un ?pisode douloureux de l'histoire, l'effort de m?moire collective doit ?tre r?alis? sur place, et avant tout par les pays concern?s. La politique ext?rieure de la Suisse veut contribuer ? l'entente turco-arm?nienne par le dialogue politique qui s'est instaur? entre la Suisse et la Turquie en 2000 et qui porte notamment sur les droits de l'homme. L'adoption du postulat risquerait de porter atteinte au dialogue officiel et r?gulier qui a ?t? ?tabli.

Les cosignataires du postulat voudraient que leur d?marche contribue ? la paix durable entre la Turquie et l'Arm?nie en adressant un message de justice aux descendants des victimes arm?niennes. Mais l'acceptation de ce postulat pourrait avoir l'effet contraire et ajouter encore ? la charge ?motionnelle qui p?se sur les relations entre la Turquie et l'Arm?nie.

D?claration du Conseil f?d?ral 15-05-2002

Le Conseil f?d?ral propose de rejeter le postulat.

Chronologie:

08-12-2003 L'intervention est reprise par Monsieur de Bumann.

16-12-2003 CN Adoption.

Bulletin officiel - les proc?s-verbaux

Comp?tence D?partement des affaires ?trang?res (DFAE)

Cosignataires

Abate Fabio - Aeschbacher Ruedi - Bader Elvira - Baumann Ruedi - Baumann Stephanie - Beck Serge - Berberat Didier - Bugnon Andr? - B?hlmann C?cile -Cavalli Franco - Chappuis Liliane - Chevrier Maurice - Chiffelle Pierre - Christen Yves - Cina Jean-Michel - Cuche Fernand - de Dardel Jean-Nils - Decurtins Walter - Donz? Walter - Dormann Rosmarie - Dormond B?guelin Marlyse - Eberhard Toni - Eggly Jacques-Simon - Ehrler Melchior - Estermann Heinrich - Fasel Hugo - F?ssler-Osterwalder Hildegard - Fattebert Jean - Fehr Jacqueline - Fehr Mario - Fehr Hans-J?rg - Fetz Anita - Galli Remo - Garbani Val?rie - Genner Ruth - Glasson Jean-Paul - Glur Walter - Goll Christine - Graf Maya - Grobet Christian - Gross Andreas - Gross Jost - Guisan Yves - G?nter Paul -Gysin Remo - Haering Barbara - Haller Ursula - H?mmerle Andrea - Hess Walter - Hofmann Urs - Hollenstein Pia - Hubmann Vreni - Imfeld Adrian - Imhof Rudolf - Janiak Claude - Jossen-Zinsstag Peter - Lachat Fran?ois - Lauper Hubert - Leu Josef - Leutenegger Oberholzer Susanne - Leuthard Doris - Loepfe Arthur - Lustenberger Ruedi - Maillard Pierre-Yves - Maitre Jean-Philippe - Mari?tan Fernand - Marti Werner - Marty K?lin Barbara - Mathys Hans Ulrich - Maury Pasquier Liliane - Meier-Schatz Lucrezia - Men?trey-Savary Anne-Catherine - Meyer Th?r?se - Mugny Patrice - M?ller-Hemmi Vreni - Neirynck Jacques - Pedrina Fabio - Pelli Fulvio - Raggenbass Hansueli - Randegger Johannes - Rechsteiner Paul - Rechsteiner Rudolf - Rennwald Jean-Claude - Robbiani Meinrado - Rossini St?phane - Ruey Claude - Scheurer R?my - Schmid Odilo - Simoneschi-Cortesi Chiara - Sommaruga Simonetta - Spielmann Jean - Strahm Rudolf - Studer Heiner - Stump Doris - Suter Marc F. - Teuscher Franziska -Thanei Anita - Tillmanns Pierre - Tsch?pp?t Alexander - Vallender Dorle - Vaudroz Ren? - Vermot-Mangold Ruth-Gaby - Vollmer Peter - Walker Felix - Widmer Hans - Widrig Hans Werner - Wiederkehr Roland - Wyss Ursula - Z?ch Guido - Zanetti Roberto - Zapfl Rosmarie - Zbinden Hans - Zisyadis Josef (113)

Descripteurs

Verbrechen gegen die Menschlichkeit; Armenien-Frage; Armenien; T?rkei; Erster Weltkrieg; Vergangenheit; Opfer unter der Zivilbev?lkerung; diplomatische Beziehungen; 08;

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Argentina, Law

March 18, 2004

Numero de Proyecto :51/04

Tipo de Proyecto : PROYECTO DE LEY

Senado de la Naci?n

Secretar?a Parlamentaria

Direcci?n Publicaciones

(S-0051/04)

PROYECTO DE LEY

El Senado y C?mara de Diputados,...

Art?culo 1?- Incorp?rase a la curr?cula escolar de los niveles primario, secundario y universitario de todo el pa?s la tem?tica alusiva al Genocidio Armenio, la cual deber? ser desarrollada en dichos niveles procur?ndose la informaci?n exhaustiva sobre lo ocurrido, as? como su difusi?n y el fortalecimiento, en los educandos, de valores vinculados a la paz, la dignidad de las personas y los derechos humanos.

Art. 2?- Incorp?rase a la efem?rides de los niveles primario, secundario y universitario de todo el pa?s el d?a 24 de abril como el d?a para honrar la memoria de las v?ctimas del Genocidio Armenio.

Art. 3?- Comun?quese al Poder Ejecutivo.

Diana B. Conti.-

Se?or Presidente

El proyecto de ley que someto a consideraci?n de mis pares se inscribe en una l?nea ideol?gica de afianzamiento de valores vinculados a la dignidad de la persona, a la justicia y a los derechos fundamentales del individuo, en concordancia con lo preceptuado por las convenciones internacionales y nuestra propia legislaci?n tuitiva de aquellos derechos.

Tanto la Declaraci?n Universal de los Derechos Humanos adoptada por las Naciones Unidas como c?digo b?sico de convivencia de la humanidad; como los otros instrumentos incorporados a nuestro derecho interno mediante el inciso 22 del art?culo 75 de la Carta Magna, constituyen la estructura fundamental del derecho internacional de los derechos humanos, plexo legal que deviene orientaci?n axiol?gica con la vista puesta en el futuro, as? como recurso con que cuenta la humanidad para evitar la reca?da en el extrav?o colectivo.

El genocidio que el llamado "gobierno de los j?venes turcos" perpetr? en 1915 en perjuicio del pueblo armenio, as? como el manto de silencio que lo cubri? durante demasiado tiempo, interpelan la conciencia de la humanidad.

En esa fecha, un 24 de abril, las autoridades ejecutaron a 2300 l?deres de la comunidad armenia de Estambul, sin causa alguna y por mero prejuicio racial y religioso, dando comienzo, de este modo, al primer genocidio del siglo XX.

Empero, los antecedentes de este proceder criminal se remontan al siglo anterior. En efecto, entre 1894 y 1896 el brazo represivo del Imperio Otomano orden? procedimientos que costaron la vida a trescientos mil armenios. Se trataba de parte de una comunidad nacional que se hab?a organizado para reclamar reformas que reconocieran sus derechos en tanto minor?a nacional.

Pero no par? aqu? la sa?a persecutoria del poder del Estado en aquella regi?n del mundo. En 1909 y poco despu?s, durante la primera guerra mundial, las autoridades turcas se propusieron y lograron el exterminio sistem?tico de armenios que viv?an en seis provincias de Anatolia oriental y Cilicia, completando estas pol?ticas ciertamente criminales con el desplazamiento forzado de sobrevivientes que se vieron, as?, exiliados y privados de sus hogares, bienes y afectos.

La verdad hist?rica -tenazmente exhumada por investigadores armenios y de otras nacionalidades- echan luz sobre estos desgraciados sucesos y dan cuenta de que el genocidio armenio no finaliz? en 1915 o en 1918, como alguna vez se afirm?, sino que continu? luego de la primera gran conflagraci?n.

En efecto, con el advenimiento al poder de Mustaf? Kemal las matanzas de armenios se sucedieron en l?gubre registro; la masacre de la ciudad de Marash, en ese tiempo, tuvo como preludio el ataque de las fuerzas kemalistas a la guarnici?n francesa destacada en el lugar, que cedi? posiciones hasta abandonar el pa?s, luego, en forma definitiva, lo cual determin? que los armenios, abandonados a su suerte, fueran exterminados por los turcos.

Tal vez el hito final, en esta historia de intolerancia, haya sido la heroica defensa que ese pueblo realiz?, en 1920, de la flamante rep?blica de Armenia --que hab?a sido creada en 1918--, hasta que, finalmente, fue sovietizada.

Con el incendio de la ciudad de Esmirna, en 1922, y la muerte de griegos y armenios, se cierra este triste cap?tulo en la historia milenaria de un pueblo que no ceja en su demanda de justicia.

Las investigaciones de estudiosos y los archivos hist?ricos dan cuenta de una cifra aproximada de 1.500.000 (un mill?n quinientos mil) v?ctimas de esta pol?tica de exterminio, lo cual constituye el delito definido por la Convenci?n de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Delito de Genocidio de 1948, que entr? en vigor en 1951 y respecto de la cual nuestro pa?s deposit? el pertinente instrumento de ratificaci?n el 31 de octubre de 1963.

Aun cuando el gobierno turco no reconoce estos hechos hist?ricos, los parlamentos de nuestro pa?s y de B?lgica, Francia, Grecia, Italia, El L?bano, Rusia, Suecia, Uruguay, as? como el Parlamento Europeo y el Consejo Mundial de Iglesias, han condenado las masacres de la poblaci?n armenia y las han caracterizado como genocidio. En el mismo sentido se han pronunciado la Asamblea Nacional de Quebec, la Asamblea Legislativa de Ontario y el Consejo Canadiense de Iglesias.

No es posible ignorar tampoco que en Argentina reside una comunidad armenia numerosa y socialmente activa, cuya laboriosidad y valores se expresan en sus aportes al acervo cultural de nuestro pa?s.

El sentimiento de justicia, hondamente arraigado en la cultura y en los valores del pueblo argentino, no podr?a sino enervarse si la indiferencia ante el justo anhelo de ese pueblo victimizado diera p?bulo a la desmemoria colectiva. Un genocidio es, sin duda, un injusto universal y su etiolog?a, naturaleza y modos de prevenirlo y castigarlo tiene que ser preocupaci?n constante de los Estados.

El pueblo y el Estado armenios reclaman que se reconozca la verdad sobre lo ocurrido, as? como la condigna reparaci?n econ?mica como obligaci?n inexcusable que tales hechos irrogaron.

Por ?ltimo, es preciso destacar que no anima a este proyecto ning?n sentimiento de venganza o revancha contra miembro alguno de la comunidad universal de las naciones. S?lo busca, por razones humanitarias y de estricta justicia, refirmar el prop?sito de que hechos de esta naturaleza deben ser denunciados pues, de este modo, se evitar?n penosas recidivas con la vista puesta en el futuro.

Atento los argumentos expuestos, se hace preciso incorporar el conocimiento y difusi?n de lo ocurrido con el pueblo armenio, en el per?odo descripto, a la curr?cula escolar de todos los niveles, as? como instituir el d?a 24 de abril como D?a de Recordaci?n del Genocidio Armenio. Ello as?, por cuanto dichas medidas aparecen como el recurso indicado para obtener los fines de memoraci?n, difusi?n y reparaci?n que hace mucho tiempo se reclaman.

Por los fundamentos expuestos, solicito de mis pares la aprobaci?n del presente proyecto de ley.

Diana B. Conti.-

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Uruguay, Law

March 26, 2004

Day of Recognition for the Armenian Martyrs

Bill Number 17.752

Article 1-The day of April 24 is declared as the “Day of Recognition for the Armenian Martyrs” in homage to the victims of this national massacre in 1915.

Article 2-The National Broadcasting Service of Uruguay (SODRE), and also other radio and television services, have the duty on this date to allocate part of their programming to the recognition of this event.

The President of the Republic of Uruguay and the Secretary of the Press and Broadcasting

unofficial translation

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D?A DE RECORDACI?N DE LOS M?RTIRES ARMENIOS.

LEY N° 17.752

Art?culo 1°.- Decl?rase el d?a 24 de abril como "D?a de recordaci?n de los m?rtires armenios" en homenaje de los integrantes de esa nacionalidad asesinados en 1915.

Art?culo 2°.- Las emisoras del Servicio Oficial de Difusi?n, Radiotelevisi?n y Espect?culos, tanto radiales como televisivas, deber?n en esa fecha destinar parte de su programaci?n a la recordaci?n de dichos sucesos.-

Presidencia de la Rep?blica Oriental del Uruguay - Secretar?a de Prensa y Difusi?n

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Canada, House of Commons, Resolution

April 21, 2004

"That this House acknowledge the Armenian genocide of 1915 and condemn this act as a crime against humanity."

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Private Members' Business

Pursuant to Standing Order 93(1), the House proceeded to the taking of the deferred recorded division on the motion of Ms. Dalphond-Guiral (Laval Centre), seconded by Mr. Assadourian (Brampton Centre), Mr. Kenney (Calgary Southeast) and Ms. McDonough (Halifax), — That this House acknowledge the Armenian genocide of 1915 and condemn this act as a crime against humanity. (Private Members' Business M-380)

The question was put on the motion and it was agreed to on the following division:

YEAS: 153, NAYS: 68

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4902.jpg Unrecognized Genocide of Armenians

The long series of political killing in the Ottoman Empire at the end of 1890’s prepared soil for the mass massacres of 1915-1923, which is now called the Armenian Genocide, which resulted in killing of one and a half million of Armenians. The start of those events is considered the murder of a number of prominent Armenians in Constantinople on April 24, 1915.

This is an issue that few people want to speak about except Armenians. Often people try to use false terms like “killings of Armenians by Turks” or “Armenian massacre,” while historically it is a real genocide.

However, up to day, many nations, including the USA, have not recognized the genocide. During the recent US election, democrat John Kerry promised to definitely recognize the genocide if being elected.

However, Bush’s victory means another four years of suspension of the issue. History shows that certain economic and military conditions always prevent from deep analysis of the issues. Obviously, great role belongs to Turkey in the Middle East fights and policies.

As a result, the genocide continues to be silenced, which means closing doors to the truth. This type of behavior does not suit nations propagandizing humanism and transparency. Moreover that nations like Argentina, Israel and the USA have come across such phenomena on certain occasions.

La Nacion editorial

Buenos Aires

22.11.2004

_________________________________________________________________

Непризнанный геноцид армян

Череда политических убийств, совершенных в Османской империи в конце 90-х годов 19-го века, привела в 1915-23 гг. к массовой резне.

Сегодня это преступление известно как Геноцид армян, жертвами которого стали более полутора миллиона человек. Началом этих трагических событий считается массовые убийства 24 апреля 1915 года в Константинополе нескольких десятков известных армянских деятелей.

Кроме армян мало кто хочет говорить об этой трагедии, а если даже говорят, то почему-то используют выражения, искажающие суть этого преступления. Между тем с исторической точки зрения это был настоящий геноцид. Однако до сих пор преступление 1915 года официально не признано, в том числе Соединенными Штатами.

Во время последних президентских выборов в США кандидат от демократов сенатор Джон Керри пообещал в случае избрания открыто признать Геноцид армян. Следует отметить, что четыре года назад аналогичное обещание давал действующий президент Америки Джордж Буш, но не выполнил его.

Последняя победа республиканцев дает основание предположить, что вопрос признания Геноцида армян останется на академическом уровне. Всегда находятся экономические или военные интересы, которые препятствуют объективной оценке совершенного преступления.

К этим причинам можно отнести и стратегическое положение Турции с учетом борьбы на Среднем Востоке, а также позицию этой страны на протяжении последних десятилетий. В результате вокруг вопроса о геноциде сохраняется молчание.

Это означает, что истина не признается. Подобный подход недостоин международного сообщества, которое постепенно становится все более открытым. А тем более, что такие страны, как Аргентина, Израиль и США в той или иной форме сталкивались с подобным преступлением.

Передовица в газете “Ла Насьон”

Буэнос-Айрес, Аргентина

22.11.2004

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Парламент Словакии признал Геноцид армян 1915 года

01.12.2004 11:43 геноцид

ЕРЕВАН ("Еркир"). - Парламент Словакии вчера единогласно принял решение о признании факта Геноцида армян 1915 года. Об этом сообщило агентство Арменпресс.

Отметим, что важнейшие пункты повестки новой сессии исполнительного органа страны - отношение Словакии к вопросу о членстве Турции в Евросоюзе и признание Геноцида армян. С последней инициативой выступил руководитель парламентской фракции Христианско-демократической партии.

Вместе с тем некоторые члены словацкого правительства заявили, что факт геноцида должен признаваться не в Словакии, а в Турции.

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"Who Still Talks Nowadays of the Extermination of the Armenians?" - Adolf Hitler, making an address before the Nazi invasion of Poland am 22. August 1939.

The New York Times

24.11.1945

Hiler's Quotes - NEW YORK TIMES - PDF

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Wolfgang & Sigrid Gust (Ed.)

The Armenian Genocide during the First World War

Documents from German State Archives

Edition I

Revised and Extended Edition of the Collection of Diplomatic Documents published by Johannes Lepsius in 1919 under the Title: "Germany and Armenia"

Documents from German State Archives

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Выдержки из The New York Times - 1915.

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The UN Report on Genocide 1985

Paragraph 24 and the Armenian Genocide

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Вот фраза Гитлера полностью.

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ARMENIANS IN TURKEY TODAY

Dr. Tessa Hofmann

A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE SITUATION

OF THE ARMENIAN MINORITY

IN THE TURKISH REPUBLIC

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BRITANNICA

Об Армении, армянаx и не только...

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Armenian Assembly of America - FACT SHEET

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Вчера по одной программе итальянского телевидения показали Чечению сегодняшную, как чечены рассказывали про то, что творили русские на их земле во время войны и до сих пор творят. Затем показали пожилых армян - живых свидетелей Геноцида. Как только показали Арарат и диктор начал как жил-был один мирный народ и т.д., я сразу поняла - про Армению и Геноцид. Начал один мужчина, который читал слова из книги, что "когда-нибудь мы вернёмся на нашу землю". Были показаны ужасные фотографии, поразившие меня увиденным. Мне очень напомнило фашистские концлагеря с умершими от истощения и замученными людьми, абсолютно худые - кожа да кости, потому что были оставлены без еды и пищи в пустыне. :cry: Бабушки рассказывали как турки выбирали самых красивых девушек, насиловали их (а за стенкой матери и другие женщины всё слышали как кричали и плакали девушки), а затем убивали - выкидывали в реку. Как один убил трёх детей одного за другим на глазах матери. :o Некоторые матери убивали своих дочерей, чтобы они не достались в руки этих извергов, спасая от обесчестия. :( В общем было тяжело слушать. И закончил словами тоже один пожилой армянин: "Никогда не забывайте Геноцид и ждите справедливости, ведь мир будет намного лучше, если всегда будет торжествовать справедливость!" (Примерно так в переводе). :verysad:

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Chantal, по-моему главное, чтоб мы чтили память убитых наших предков, но в то же время не впадали в роль “великомученического” народа. Как показали события последних лет армяне могут и ПОБЕЖДАТь!

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